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An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Cartographical Legend

Christos Nüssli


Main graphic conventions used in the periodical historical atlas

Independant state
Dependant state 
Part of a state 
Sub-part of a state 
Under loose control 
Uncertain boundaries 
Shared authority 
Unknown status 
TERRAE INCOGNITAE, unknown regions 
Unknown population 
Not well known population 
Rough territories 
(depending from CALIFAT)
(roman diocese)
(province, theme etc.)
(under loose control of ROMAN)
(uncertain boundaries between ROMAN and CALIFAT)
(condominium of CYPRUS)
(unknown territories between SERBIA and BULGARIA)
(name on white)
(grey or shade of grey)
The names are written in latin
from AD 1 to AD 500
and in french from 
AD 600 to AD 900.
Modern notions such as "borders" or "state" do not correspond to
ancient political facts. That is why graduate colors towards white
are often used.



1             Lands of Italian kingdom ES           Landgravate of Hessen, Germany P.BAV.         Bavarian Palatinate
2             Lands of Burgundian kingdom Es           Seigniory of Este, Italy PA.               Pagania, Dalmatia
A            County of Asti, Italy EZM       Emirate of Erzerum PH.               Phoenicia
A            Territory of Haschichins, Lebanon EZN        Emirate of Erzinjan PO.               Powys, Wales
A.M.      Alpes maritimae F              County of Freiburg (Breisgau), Germany PSZ              Pomerania of Stettin
A.           County of Ampurias, Pyrenees F              Seigniory of Florence, Italie PT                Rhine Palatinate
A.           Principalty of Anhalt, Germany FIR.         Republic of Florence R                  Emirate of Ibn Razin
AM.       Republic of Amalfi FO.           County of Forez R                  Rhwng Gwy a Hafren, Wales
AN.        Principalty of Antioch FOR.        Federate of the Woods (Switzerland) RA               Principalty of Ratibor, Silesia
ANG.     County of Angoulême G              Gwent, Wales RAG.           City or republic of Ragusa
ANJ.      Anjou g               Mantova, Gonzagues RAM.          Land of Rama, Dalmatia
ARGH   Arghvety, Caucasus GALL.     Galloway RAUME         Kingdom
ARM.    Armagnac GÉ.          Gevaudan REGIO        Italian (Augustean) region
ARTAT   archontat GÊ+F       Genoese (French protectorate) RG               Kingdom of the Georgians
ASH       Principalty of Ashraf, Anatolia GL.           County of Gelderland RT               Conty of Rethel (Burgundian)
ATH.      Duchy of Athens Glo           Glogau, Silesia S                  Federate of the Woods (Switzerland)
AUG.      Augustamnica GLO.       Glogau, Silesia S                  Marquisat de Saluces, Italie, Lombardie
AZ          Arezzo            Görlitz S                  Principauté de Strehlitz, Silésie
B            Bologna, Italy GOU        Gounjety, Caucasus S                  République de Sienne, Italie, Toscane
B            Buellt, Wales GWDD    Gwynedd, Wales SA               Marquisate of Saluzzo
B            Margravate of Baden, Germany H              Estate of the Habsburgs SAH.           Principalty of Sahib-Ata, Anatolia
B.LAN.  Bavaria of Landshut H**          Hainaut united with county of Holland SAL.            Principalty of Salerno
b1           Bar, royal part H.             County of Hereford SCH             Schweidnitz, Silesia
B2          Duchy of Bar, imperial HH           Hainaut and county of Holland SH.               County of Shrewsbury
BA         Duchy of Bar I.               March of Istria SH.-AR.       Emirate of Shah-Armen, Anatolia
BAM     Bavaria of Munich J.              Assizes (kingdom) of Jerusalem SPQR           Roman senatorial province
BAS       Bavaria of Straubing K              Emirate of Khelat, Anatolia SRN             Duchy of Schwerin
BENE.   Principalty of Benevento KOP.        Duchy Kopanice/Köpenick, Berlin ST                Principalty of Starodub
BG         Bergamo KRE.        Duchy of Kremenets, Ukraine sv                 Sovana, Italy
BL.         County of Blois L               Lucca, Italy SV                Sovana, Italy
BOUR.   County of Bourbon L               Principalty of Liège, Belgium SW               Saxony-Wittenberg
BR          Brescia, Italy L.LOMB. Lombard league T                  Arabs of Traëtta, Italy, AD 900
BR          Breslau/Wroclaw, Silesia L.TOS.     Tuscan league T                  Conty of Toulouse, France
Br            Brycheiniog, Wales LE            Emirate of Lerida, Spain T                  Terbunia, Dalmatia
Br            Principalty of Breslau/Wroclaw, Silesia LEIN        Leinster TE                Principalty of Teschen, Silesia
BRE        Brefni, Ireland LG            Principalty of Liegnitz, Silesia TER.            Terbunia, Dalmatia
BU           Land of Budissin, Silesia LI.             Limburg (Burgundian) THO             Thomond, Ireland
C              Chiusi, Italy, north of Rome LIM.         County of Limousin TIR1             Tir Connail, Ireland
C.             County of Capoue, Italy, south of Rome LOR.         Duchy of Lorraine TIR2             Tir Eoghain, Ireland
C.HLT     County of Holstein LTH          Landgravate of Thuringia TO                Emirate of Tortosa, Spain
CA           County of Asti LUX.         Duchy of Luxemburg TOUR.         Touraine
CAESARI  Roman imperial province m               Marquisate of Montferrat TR                Principalty of Troppau, Silesia
           Cephalonia M              Milan, Italy TR                Treviso, Italy
CÉPH.     Cephalonia M              Montenegro, Dalmatia TR.               Conty of Tripoli, Lebanon
CH.          Châteauroux M              Morgannwg, Wales TRT             Principalty of Trento
CHE.        County of Chester M. BILL   March of the Billung UL                Ulster, Ireland
CO           County of Como, Italy M. PR.      Marquisate of Provence UR.              Uriel, Ireland
CO1         Connacht, county of Mayo, Ireland M. SA.      March of Sannthal v                   Comtat venaissin, France
CO2         Connacht, county of Sligo, Ireland MAT.        Banate of Macva, Yugoslavia V                  Volterra, Italy
CRN        Carniola MC           Mac Carthy, Ireland VA               Valentinois, France
CRTH      Carinthia ME.          March of Merseeburg VAL.            Conty of Valois
CRTN      Carantania MF           Marquisate of Montferrat VAL.SVB.   Valeria suburbicaria
D              Emirate of Dwin, Anatolia Mo           Duchy of Montefeltro VE                Seigniory of Verona
d               Principalty of Dombes, France MTIOU   Mtioulety, Caucasus VER.            Vermandois
D. BRL    Duchy of Brunswick-Lunebourg N              County or principalty of Namur, Belgium VIV.             Vivarais
D. CÉPH. Duchy of Cephalonia N              Normans, AD 900                Vendôme
D. COR.   Duchy of Corfu N              Seigniory of Njegos, Dalmatia W                 Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
D. LIM.    Duchy of Limburg N.             County of Nevers, France WU              Würtemberg
D. SP        Duchy of Spoleto NA.          Duchy of Naples YO               Principalty de Jurev
D.MEK.   Duchy of Mecklemburg NAR.       Free-county of Narbonne, France ZH.              Zahlumia, Dalmatia
DCHÉ V.  Duchy of Venice NAR.       Narentani, Dalmatia ZOUR         Principalty of Zangezur, Caucasus
DFK          Emirate of Dephrik, Anatolia NO           Novara
DID           Didoethy, Caucasus NX           Duchy of Naxos
DIM.         Principalty of Dimitri O              Principalty of Oppeln/Opole, Silesia
DRJ          Durdjukethy, Caucasus ORL.        Duchy of Orléans
DZO.         Principalty of Dzoraget, Caucasus OZ            Banate of Ozora
E.M.          Emirate of Mardin P II           Palestina secunda
EG.            Egypt P              Pallavicini, Italy, west coast
ERM         Emirate of Erzerum P               Republic of Piacenza, Italy, Emilia
ERN          Emirate of Erzinjan p               Seigniory of Padova, Italy, Veneto


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Updated: 18 April 1999