From A.D. 253 to 260, Valerian ruled the Roman Empire together with his son Gallienus. At the end of the fifties, Valerian launched an attack against the Persians, but was captured in A.D. 260. Persians invaded the eastern Roman provinces, producing chaos. In turn, provincials tried to help themselves by choosing their own emperors –effectively rebelling– not only in the east but also in Gaul and in the Danube region, where Germanic tribes invaded. It took some time before Gallienus was able to regain power. It was not until the reign of Aurelian that the Gallic and the Palmyrene empires were reconquered.
One major problem in dealing with the rebellions of the early sixties is the scarcity of sources: evidence is meagre and scattered, dating only from late antiquity or even the Byzantine period. The most extensive source is the anonymous Historia Augusta, a collection of imperial biographies dating probably from the late fourth century. But this work contains many inventions and distortions, and the part on the usurpers under Gallienus, called Tyranni triginta, is particularly notorious.Some of the persons listed in this book are complete fabrications; some existed but did not rebel against Gallienus. Most of the details on the lives and characters of even the usurpers are invented. Therefore, it is quite difficult to single out the historical facts on the rebellions under Gallienus.
1. Usurpers at the Danube Frontier: Ingenuus and Regalianus
2. Usurpers in the east: The Macriani and Ballista
The Macriani are Macrianus senior and his sons Macrianus iunior and Quietus. The origins of their family are unknown.[] They revolted after Valerianus was defeated and captured by the Persians, A.D. 260.[] T.(?) Fulvius Macrianus (senior) made an equestrian military career under Valerian.[] He was married to a wife of noble origin, possibly named Iunia.[] He served as a rationibus Augusti in Egypt under Valerian, and is said to have instigated the persecution against the Christians in this province.[] Later, he accompanied the emperor Valerian on his Persian campaign as procurator arcae et praepositus annonae in expeditione Persica.[] According to Eusebius, he betrayed Valerian.[]
When Valerian was captured by the Persians in A.D. 260, his son Gallienus, coregent already since A.D. 253, became sole emperor. But he was far away in the west. Therefore, in response to the military catastrophe, the eastern army chose their own emperor. The pretorian prefect Ballista proposed Macrianus senior as the new ruler. But Macrianus refused the honor because of his old age and his fragile state of health.[] His two sons Macrianus iunior and Quietus were proclaimed instead, before 17 September 260.[] Two factors were important for the usurpation of the Macriani. As procurator arcae et praepositus annonae, Macrianus senior had control over the treasure of Valerian: therefore, the usurpers were able to mint coins. On the other hand, the praetorian prefect Ballista defeated the Persians after Valerian’s capture. This helped to legitimate the claim for power of the Macriani.[]
T. Fulvius Iunius Macrianus (iunior) and T. Fulvius Iunius Quietus were the sons of Macrianus senior and of a noble mother. According to the Historia Augusta, they both served as military tribunes under Valerian, but this information is to be dismissed as fictitious.[] When they had been proclaimed emperors, gold and silver coins were minted in their names.[] Some of these, bearing the reverse legends Fides Militum, Fortuna Redux, Marti Propugnatori, Soli Invicto, Victoria Augg., honor the army and proclaim confidence of victory. Other coins proclaim the beginning of a new and prosperous rule in the Roman Empire: Romae Aeternae, Spes Publica, Indulgentiae Aug., Aequitas Augg., Pietas Aug. Macrianus iunior and Quietus also became consuls.
Their rule won recognition in the east of the Empire and in Egypt.[] Sooner or later, the Macriani had to face Gallienus, who still controlled Italy and the Balkans. Therefore, Macrianus father and son marched westwards, while Quietus and Ballista stayed in the east to secure control over this region.[] In the autumn of A.D. 261, the Macriani were defeated by Aureolus or Domitianus in Illyricum (near the border of Thrace) and killed by their own soldiers.[] After this defeat, Quietus lost control of the east, while Odaenathus of Palmyra gained power. Together with Ballista, Quietus retreated to Emesa, where he was killed by the inhabitants of the city.[]
Ballista appears in the sources also under the name of “Callistus”.[] He was the prefect of the guard (praefectus praetorio) under the Macriani, perhaps also under Valerian.[] As praefectus equitum, he defeated the Persians after they had captured Valerian.[] Afterwards, he played a crucial role in the rebellion of the Macriani.[] In the autumn of A.D. 261, he was in Emesa with Quietus. According to the Historia Augusta, he was proclaimed emperor after the death of Quietus, but this seems to be one of the many inventions of the anonymous author.[] He was put to death by Odaenathus of Palmyra.[]
In the thirteenth book of the Oracula Sibyllina, a source contemporary to the events, we may have an interesting allusion to Macrianus senior and Ballista: “With great and reckless courage he (i.e. the “sun-sent, dreadful, fearsome lion, breathing much fire”) will destroy the well-horned swift stag and the great, venom-spitting, fearsome beast discharging many shafts and the bow-footed goat …”[] According to Potter, the lion is Odaenathus of Palmyra, the stag Macrianus, the beast Shapur (the Great King of Persia) and the goat Ballista.[]
The revolt of the Macriani resulted from the fact that the emperor Valerian was caught by the Persians and that his son and coregent, Gallienus, was far away in the west. The soldiers of the eastern army and the people of the eastern provinces were looking for a new emperor who would save them from the Persian threat.[] Macrianus senior and Ballista had won reputation because of their victories over the Persians. They also had control over Valerian’s war-chest.
3. Usurpers in Achaea: Valens and Piso
Valens, with the cognomen “Thessalonicus”, was governor of the province Achaea (and maybe also Macedonia) under Gallienus.[] When the Macriani marched westward, they had to deal with those governors like Valens who tried to stay loyal to Gallienus. Therefore, Macrianus senior sent Piso to Greece to take care of Valens. Valens’ troops reacted by proclaiming their governor emperor, probably in A.D. 261. Since the problematic Historia Augusta is our only source for Piso, we cannot be sure about the reliability of all the reports.[] He is said to have stemmed from the gens Calpurnia, a noble consular family which had family ties to Cicero in the late republic.[] Being a man of severe Roman virtues, he is said to have received the cognomen “Frugi”. When Piso reached Thessaly, he tried to become emperor himself (probably in A.D. 261). According to the Historia Augusta, he assumed the name “Thessalicus”, probably a confusion with Valens “Thessalonicus” (see above).[] He was killed by the soldiers of Valens. This senatus consultum obviously forged by the anonymous author of the Historia Augusta consecrated Piso and granted him a statue.[] Valens himself met death by the hands of his own soldiers. The events in Greece are very obscure. Why was Valens proclaimed emperor? Did he try to stay loyal to Gallienus, and was he forced to accept the purple by his troops? Is Piso’s rebellion an invention by the anonymous author of the Historia Augusta? At least, it is certain that Achaea and Macedonia were drawn into the conflict between the Macriani and Gallienus.
4. Usurpers in Egypt: Mussius Aemilianus and Memor
The career of L. Mussius Aemilianus (signo Aegippius), perhaps of Italic origin,[] is known from an inscription. He was of equestrian rank, served as praefectus vehiculorum trium provinciarum Galliarum (probably under Philip the Arab, i.e. A.D. 244-249), procurator Alexandreae Pelusi Paraetoni, procurator portus utriusque Ostiae (A.D. 247), vice-prefect of Egypt (at the end of the fifties), and finally prefect of Egypt (A.D. 259-261).[] He was responsible for the implementation of Valerian’s laws against the Christians.[]
Mussius supported the usurpation of the Macriani. When their revolt broke down, Mussius himself seems to have been proclaimed emperor in Egypt. Having compromised himself by supporting the Macriani, he did not have any other choice than to rebel against Gallienus. Gallienus sent troops under the command of Aurelius Theodotus who defeated Mussius before the 30th March 262. The usurper was executed. Memor came from northern Africa.[] He was in charge of guaranteeing the food supply from Egypt, and is said to have prepared a rebellion. Theodotus’ soldiers killed him (probably in A.D. 262), before he was proclaimed emperor. Schwartz tried to identify him with Mussius Aemilianus, but not successfully.[] In both cases, it is not certain whether Aemilianus and Memor really tried to become emperors themselves, or whether they were killed because they supported the Macriani.[]
6. Fictitious usurpers: Trebellianus, Celsus and Saturninus
During the sole reign of Gallienus (A.D. 260-268), Trebellianus is said to have been proclaimed emperor in Isauria (Asia minor).[] According to the Historia Augusta, he also had control over Cilicia, but was defeated and killed by Camsisoleus, dux Gallieni, an Egyptian and brother of Theodotus who defeated Mussius Aemilianus. However, scholarly consensus holds that the whole story was invented by the author of the Historia Augusta.[] Trebellianus is also mentioned in the Breviarium of Eutropius (earlier than the Historia Augusta), but the passage is probably a later interpolation, inspired by the vita in the Historia Augusta.[]
According to the Historia Augusta, Celsus, a privatus and ex-tribune, lived in Africa on his estates. Because of his justice and his tall stature, he was proclaimed emperor by Vibius Passienus, the proconsul of Africa, and Fabius Pomponianus, the dux limitis Libyci, and was invested with the cloth of the dea Caelestis. After only seven days, a certain Galliena, a relative of Gallienus, is said to have killed him. His body was thrown to the dogs. The rebellion and the persons involved are obviously invented.[]
Saturninus, not to be confused with the usurper of the same name under Probus, appears in the Historia Augusta as optimus ducum Gallieni temporis. He is said to have been proclaimed emperor by the troops and to have been killed later by his own soldiers, because he was too severe. Obviously, he is as fictitious as Trebellianus and Celsus.[]
[] Literary sources for the Macriani and Quietus: SHA, Gall. 1.2-3.5; Tyr. trig. 12-14. 18 (the vitae in Tyranni triginta are not to be trusted and contain many inventions); Zon. 12.24. Sources for Ballista/ Kallistos: SHA, Val. 4.4; Gall. 1.2-3.5; Synk. 716; Zon. 12.23. SHA, Val. 4,4; Zon. 12,24 (for the Oracula Sibyllina, see below). His vita in Tyr. trig. 18 is to be dismissed as inventional. Coins minted in his name are forgeries: cf. Henze, 1896, col. 2831; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 357, n. 1. For the passage in the Oracula Sibyllina mentioning Macrianus senior and Ballista, see below.
[] Stein, 1910, col. 254-256 (cf. also col. 261f.); Alföldi, 1938, pp. 69f., 71f.; Barbieri, 1952, p. 404; D. W. Rathbone, The dates of the recognition in Egypt of the emperors from Caracalla to Diocletianus, ZPE 62, 1986, pp. 101-131, especially 118f.; Peachin, 1990, pp. 40f. The earliest Egyptian papyrus mentioning the Macriani as emperors is Pap. Oxy. XLIX, 3476, ll. 12f., dated 17 September 260; the last one is dated 30 October 261 (Pap. Strasb. I, 6, ll. 37f.). Gallienus is first mentioned again in a document from 30th March 262. Therefore, the rebellion of the Macriani collapsed between October 261 and March 262.
[] SHA, Tyr. trig. 10.14; 12.1; 13.3. Pflaum (1960, p. 930) dismisses the whole account as fictional. The details of the military career reported in SHA, Tyr. trig. 12.17 are to be dismissed: Stein, 1910, col. 260.
[] Cf. SHA, Tyr. trig. 13.3. Because the younger son Quietus bears the name Iunius, scholars think that his mother, i. e., Macrianus’ wife, came from a gens Iunia: cf. Stein, 1910, col. 260.
[] Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.10.4-7, citing Dionysius of Alexandria; Stein (1910, col. 260) dismisses the title as being fictional, but see in detail: Pflaum, 1960, pp. 930-932.
[] Petr. Patr., Exc. de sent. 264, 159 Boissevain (p. 742) (= Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. by C. Müller, Vol. 4, p. 193, no. 3). The first title is obviously inspired by the comes largitionum of late antiquity and therefore anachronistic if used for the third century (Stein, 1910, col. 260; Alföldi, 1937, p. 61, n. 58). See for the duties of Macrianus in Egypt: Pflaum, 1960, p. 932.
[] Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.23.1. According to Stein (1910, col. 261) and Hartmann (1982, p. 76, n. 3), the betrayal is an invention by Dionysius of Alexandria, who was very hostile towards Macrianus, the instigator of the persecutions in Egypt.
[] Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.10.8 (cf. 7.23.2); Petr. Patr., loc. cit.; Zon. 12.24; SHA, Tyr. trig. 12.7. According to the Historia Augusta (Gall. 1.3; Tyr. trig. 12.12), he became emperor together with his sons. This tale is obviously fictitious: cf. Alföldi, 1938, p. 69, n. 6; Hohl, 1939, col. 131f.; Stein, 1943, pp. 215 and 217; Barbieri, 1952, p. 404; Hartmann, 1982, p. 70, n. 1; Kienast, 1996, p. 224. Nevertheless, Macrianus senior may have had a strong influence on the reign of his sons (cf. Stein, 1910, col. 261).
[] Pap. Oxy. 3476, lines 12f. Cf. Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.10.3 and 8; SHA, Gall. 1,3-5; Tyr. trig. 12.10-12; 14.1; Zon. 12.24.
[] Alföldi, 1937, pp. 65f.; 1938, pp. 68f.
[] SHA, Tyr. trig. 12.10: fictitious according to Kienast, 1996, pp. 225f.; uncertain according to Stein, 1910, col. 257.
[] RIC 5.2, pp. 580-583; cf. also pp. 572f.; Alföldi, 1937, p. 52, with plate XIV, nos. 13-24, and plate XV, nos. 1-16.
[] For the coins, papyri and inscriptions mentioning the emperors, see Stein, 1910, col. 256; 258; Stein, 1943, pp. 215f.
[] SHA, Gall. 2.5; Tyr. trig. 12.12; Zon. 12.24.
[] Zon. 12.24 (whose localisation is wrong, according to Stein, 1910, col. 256; 261, right according to Alföldi, 1938, p. 70); cf. SHA, Gall. 1.6; 2.6-7; 3.1 and 3; 7.3; Tyr. trig. 11.1-2; 12.12-14; 13.3 and 7; 14.1; 15.4; Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.10.5; 8; 23.2.
[] Zon. 12.24; Petr. Patr. 167, Boissevain (p. 744); SHA, Gall. 3.1-4 (where Ballista is said to have instigated them). According to Stein (1910, col. 257), all these sources depend on the Athenian historian Dexippus (third century).
[] According to Hanslik (1964, col. 817) and Kienast (1996, p. 227), “Callistus” was the real name, “Ballista” being a nickname. Potter (1990, p. 343) thinks that Ballista bore both names. (In the Oracula Sibyllina 13, 169 is a play on the name of Ballista with the Greek: cf. Potter, loc. cit.) But Henze (1896, col. 2831) and Birley (1997, col. 425) think that “Ballista” was the real name, “Callistus” being an error, as is also convincingly argued by Bleckmann (1992, p. 117).
[] SHA, Tyr. trig. 12.1, respectively SHA, Gall. 3.2; Tyr. trig. 11; 12.6.
[] SHA, Val. 4.4; Zon. 12.23; Synk. 716. The title is found in Zonaras. According to Henze (1896, col. 2831) and Stein (1910, col. 261), this could denote the pretorian prefect.
[] SHA, Gall. 1.2; Tyr. trig. 12.1.
[] SHA, Tyr. trig. 15.4; 18.1-3; Gall. 3.2-4: uncertain: Henze, 1896, col. 2831; fictitious according to Stein, 1910, col. 258; Stein, 1933, p. 351; Jones etc., 1971, p. 146; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 357, n. 1; Kienast, 1996, p. 227. For the many contradictions concerning Ballista, cf. E. Birley, “Ballista and ‘Trebellius Pollio,’” BHAC 1984/85, Bonn 1987, pp. 55-60.
[] Zon. 12.24; SHA, Gall. 3.1f.; Tyr. trig. 14.1; 18.12.
[] Or. Sib. 13.166-169 (translated by Potter, 1990, p. 177).
[] Potter, 1990, pp. 340-346. The question of the identification is treated in detail by S. Swain, “Macrianus as the ‘Well-Horned Stag’ in the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle,” GRBS 33 (1992), pp. 375-382 (esp. pp. 377f. 379-381).
[] Cf. also Hartmann, 1982, pp. 160f. Under the pressure of the barbarian and Persian invasions of the third century and the need for quick decisions, soldiers and provincials wanted their emperors to be near them, as is also shown by the rebellions of Pacatianus and Iotapianus under Philip the Arab.
[] Sources for Valens: Amm. 21.16.10; Epit. de Caes. 32.4; SHA, Gall. 2.2-4; Tyr. trig. 19-21. Cognomen “Thessalonicus”: Amm. 21.16.10. Sträussler (1948, col. 2138) and Kienast (1996, p. 227) therefore think that Valens may have been proclaimed in Thessalonica. Valens is said to have had an uncle of the same name (Valens), who also had instigated a rebellion (SHA, Tyr. trig. 20). This story probably is an invention: cf. Barbieri, 1952, p. 407; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 359, n. 2; see also Sträussler, 1948, col. 2138. For the possible identification with a Valentinus, known from the Continuator Dionis, cf. M. Lambertz, s.v. “Valentinus no. 2,” RE VII.A, 1948, col. 2273.
[] Sources for Piso: SHA, Gall. 2.1-4; Tyr. trig. 19.2; 21. For the question of reliability: Stein, 1936, p. 72; Stein, 1943, p. 217; Jones etc., 1971, p. 703; Hartmann, 1982, p. 98, n. 5; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 359, n. 1. See for the question also Kienast, 1996, p. 226; Wachtel, 1998, p. 167. Barbieri (1952, p. 263) leaves the question open. Klass (1950, col. 1803-1805) certainly goes too far in rejecting the course of events as reported in the Historia Augusta, but accepting everything reported about Piso’s character: the anonymous author likes to invent character studies of the emperors and usurpers. Too much trust in the Historia Augusta is also to be found in Sträussler, 1948, col. 2138.
[] For the invention of names by the author of the Historia Augusta, cf. R. Syme, “The bogus names in the Historia Augusta,” BHAC 1964/65, Bonn 1966, p. 261.
[] Cf. Klass, 1950, col. 1804; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 358, n. 3.
[] Cf. Stein, 1910, col. 261.
[] Cf. Pflaum, 1960, p. 927. Literary sources for Mussius Aemilianus: Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.11; Epit. de Caes. 32.4; SHA, Gall. 4.1-2 (mentioned also in 5.6, and 9.1); Tyr. trig. 22,1-8. The course of events as narrated in Tyranni triginta, where Aemilianus appears as a new Alexander preparing a campaign against India, is certainly fictitious (cf. Petersen, 1983, p. 327).
[] Career until A.D. 247: ILS 1433 = CIL VI, 1624; prefect of Egypt: P. Oxy. 9, 1201, ll. 21f. For the papyri see Stein, 1933, col. 902, Pflaum, 1960, p. 925; Jones etc., 1971, p. 23, and Petersen, 1983, pp. 326f. According to Pflaum (1960, p. 927), Mussius Aemilianus’ quick advancement shows that he benefited from imperial favour.
[] Euseb., hist. eccl. 7.11.
[] Sources for Memor: Petr. Patr., Exc. de sent. 264, 160, ed. Boissevain (p. 742); Zos. 1,38,1.
[] See Hartmann, 1982, p. 107, n. 6; Petersen, 1983, p. 255.
[] Hartmann, 1982, p. 107. Alföldi (1938, pp. 73f.), Hohl (1939, col. 132), and Peachin (1990, p. 42) maintain the usurpation of Aemilianus, Alföldi (loc. cit.) also the one of Memor.
[] Sources for Trebellianus: Eutr. 9.8; SHA, Tyr. trig. 26. Sources for Celsus: SHA, Tyr. trig. 29; mentioned also in SHA, Claud. 7.4. Sources for Saturninus: SHA, Gall. 9.1; Tyr. trig. 23; Firmi et al. 11.1.
[] Stein, 1936, p. 146; Stein, 1937, col. 2262; Hohl, 1939, col. 130; Barbieri, 1952, p. 410; Syme, 1966 (see above n. 26), p. 261; Hartmann, 1982, p. 18, n. 1; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 364, n. 1; Kienast, 1996, p. 229; Trebellianus is marked as doubtful also by Jones etc., 1971, p. 922. According to Hohl (loc. cit.) and Syme (loc. cit.), the anonymous author constructed the name „Trebellianus” after the (also fictitious!) pseudonym he assumed for the authorship of the Vita of the Tyranni triginta, „Trebellius Pollio”.
[] Eutr. 9.8. That the passage is interpolated is argued by Stein, 1937, col. 2262 (with further literature), and Kienast, 1996, p. 229. Ziegler (in: Straub, 1985, pp. 350f., n. 1; p. 364, n. 1) on the other hand thinks that „Trebellianus” in Eutropius could be a mistake for „Regalianus”, and that the anonymous author of the Historia Augusta invented the usurper Trebellianus after the misspelled „Trebellianus” he found in Eutropius.
[] Hohl, 1939, col. 130; Hanslik, 1964, col. 1102; Hartmann, 1982, p. 18, n. 1; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 366, n. 4; Kienast, 1996, p. 230; Eck, 1997, col. 1051; marked as doubtful also by Jones etc., 1971, p. 193. Stein however (1899, col. 1882f.) took the story serious, while Barbieri (1952, pp. 402f.) is undecided.
[] Stein, 1921, col. 213; Hohl, 1939, col. 130; Barbieri, 1952, p. 409; Ziegler, in: Straub, 1985, p. 361, n. 1; Kienast, 1996, p. 230. The person of Saturninus seems to be invented after the usurper Saturninus under Probus: see Hohl, 1939, col. 130.
1. Abbreviations and general works
A. Alföldi, Die Hauptereignisse der Jahre 253-261 n. Chr. im Orient im Spiegel der Münzprägung, Berytus 4, 1937, pp. 41-68.
A. Alföldi, Die römische Münzprägung und die historischen Ereignisse im Osten zwischen 260 und 270 n. Chr., Berytus 5, 1938, pp. 47-92.
G. Barbieri, L’albo senatorio da Settimio Severo a Carino (193-285), Roma 1952 (Studi pubblicati dall’Istituto Italiano per la Storia Antica, Fasc. 6).
Bonner Historia-Augusta-Colloquium (Antiquitas, Ser. 4: Beiträge zur Historia-Augusta-Forschung, ed. by A. Alföldi, continued by others), Bonn 1963ff.
B. Bleckmann, Die Reichskrise des III. Jahrhunderts in der spätantiken und byzantinischen Geschichtsschreibung. Untersuchungen zu den nachdionischen Quellen der Chronik des Johannes Zonaras, München 1992 (Quellen und Forschungen zur Antiken Welt, Vol. 11).
Der Neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike, ed. by H. Cancik and H. Schneider, Stuttgart/ Weimar 1996ff.
F. Hartmann, Herrscherwechsel und Reichskrise. Untersuchungen zu den Ursachen und Konsequenzen der Herrscherwechsel im Imperium Romanum der Soldatenkaiserzeit (3. Jahrhundert n. Chr.), Frankfurt a. M./ Bern 1982 (Europäische Hochschulschriften, Ser. 3, Vol. 149).
E. Hohl, s.v. Triginta Tyranni, RE VII.A.1, 1939, col. 129-132.
D. Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle. Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie, Darmstadt 21996.
Der Kleine Pauly. Lexikon der Antike, ed. by K. Ziegler and W. Sontheimer, Stuttgart 1964ff.
M. Peachin, Roman imperial titulature and chronology, A.D. 235-284, Amsterdam 1990 (Studia Amstelodamensia ad Epigraphicam, Ius Antiquum et Papyrologiacam pertinentia, Vol. 29).
Pflaum, 1960/ 1961:
H.-G. Pflaum, Les carrières procuratoriennes équestres sous le Haut-Empire romain, 3 volumes, Paris 1960-1961 (Institut Français d’Archéologie de Beyrouth. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, Vol. 57), Supplément, ed. by A. Chastagnol etc., Paris 1982 (Institut Français d’Archéologie du Proche-Orient. Beyrouth-Damas-Amman. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique, Vol. 112).
PIR and PIR2:
P. von Rohden/ H. Dessau, Prosopographia Imperii Romani Saec. I.II.III, Berlin 1897ff.
E. Groag/ A. Stein (continued by others), Prosopographia Imperii Romani Saec. I.II.III, 2nd edition, Berlin/ Leipzig 1933ff.
A. H. M. Jones/ J. R. Martindale/ J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: A.D. 260-395, Cambridge 1971.
see under 7.2.
Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. by G. Wissowa (continued by others), Stuttgart 1893ff.
P. H. Webb, The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part II, London 1933.
see under 7.2.
Sextus Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus. Origo gentis Romanae. Liber de viris illustribus urbis Romae. Epitome de Caesaribus, ed. Fr. Pichlmayr, corrected by R. Gruendel, Leipzig 1966
Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita, ed. F. Ruehl, Leipzig 1887 (repr. Darmstadt 1975).
Historia Augusta. Römische Herrschergestalten, Vol. II: Von Maximinus Thrax bis Carinus, ed. by J. Straub, transl. by E. Hohl, commented by E. Merten, A. Rösger and N. Ziegler, Zürich/ München 1985.
Scriptores Historiae Augustae, ed. by E. Hohl, corrected by Ch. Samberger, W. Seyfarth, Vol. II, Leipzig 31971 (Teubner).
The Scriptores Historiae Augustae, transl. by D. Magie, Vol. III, Cambridge (Mass.)/ London 1932 (repr. 1954, 1961) (Loeb).
D. S. Potter, Prophecy and history in the crisis of the Roman Empire. A historical commentary on the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle, Oxford 1990.
3. The Macriani and Ballista
Kienast, 1996, pp. 224-227.
3.1. Macrianus senior
T. Franke, s.v. Fulvius no. II.9, DNP 4, 1998, col. 707f.
R. Hanslik, s.v. Fulvius no. II.7, KlP 2, 1967, col. 635.
A. H. M. Jones etc., s.v. “Macrianus no. 2,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 528.
Pflaum, Vol. II, 1960, pp. 928-933, no. 350.
Pflaum, Vol. III, 1961, pp. 1019. 1080.
A. Stein, s.v. “Fulvius no. 82,” RE VII.1, 1910, col. 259-262.
A. Stein, PIR III2, 1943, pp. XV and 216f., no. 549.
3.2. Macrianus iunior
Barbieri, 1952, pp. 404f., no. 15.
R. Hanslik, s.v. “Fulvius no. II.5,” KlP 2, 1967, col. 634f.
A. H. M. Jones etc., s.v. “Macrianus no. 3,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 528.
A. Stein, s.v. “Fulvius no. 73,” RE VII.1, 1910, col. 253-257.
A. Stein, PIR III2, 1943, pp. XV and 215, no. 546.
Barbieri, 1952, p. 405, no. 16.
R. Hanslik, s.v. “Fulvius no. II.6,” KlP 2, 1967, col. 635.
A. H. M. Jones etc., s.v. “Quietus no. 1,” PLRE I, 1971, pp. 757f.
A. Stein, s.v. “Fulvius no. 74,” RE VII.1, 1910, col. 257f.
A. Stein, PIR III2, 1943, p. 216, no. 547.
A. R. Birley, s.v. “Ballista,” DNP 2, 1997, col. 425f.
R. Hanslik, s.v. “Ballista,” KlP 1, 1964, col. 817.
W. Henze, s.v. “Ballista no. 2,” RE II.2, 1896, col. 2831.
A. H. M. Jones etc., s.v. “Ballista,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 146.
A. Stein, PIR I2, 1933, p. 351, no. 41.
4. Valens and Piso
Kienast, 1996, pp. 226f.
Barbieri, 1952, p. 311, no. 1735.
H. Dessau, PIR III, 1898, p. 348, no. 7.
A. H. M. Jones et al., s.v. “Valens no. 2,” PLRE I, 1971, pp. 929f.
A. Lippold, s.v. “Valens no. 1,” KlP 5, 1975, col. 1090.
D. Sträussler, s.v. “Valens no. 5,” RE VII.A.2, 1948, col. 2138.
Barbieri, 1952, p. 263, no. 1501.
A. H. M. Jones etc., s.v. “Piso no. 1,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 703.
J. Klass, s.v. “Piso no. 7,” RE XX.2, 1950, col. 1803-1805.
A. Stein, PIR II2, 1936, p. 72, no. 298.
K. Wachtel, PIR VI2, 1998, p. 167, no. 428.
5. Mussius Aemilianus and Memor
Kienast, 1996, pp. 227f.
5.1. Mussius Aemilianus
Barbieri, 1952, p. 408, no. 22.
A. R. Birley, s.v. “Aemilianus no. 2,” DNP 1, 1996, col. 176.
R. Hanslik, s.v. “Aemilianus no. 2,” KlP 1, 1964, col. 89.
A. H. M. Jones et al., s.v. “Aemilianus no. 6,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 23.
L. Petersen, PIR V2, fasc. 2, 1983, pp. 326f., no. 757.
Pflaum, Vol. II, 1960, pp. 925-927.
Pflaum, Vol. III, 1961, pp. 1031. 1054. 1089.
A. Stein, s.v. “Mussius,” RE XVI.1, 1933, col. 901f.
Barbieri, 1952, pp. 407f., no. 21.
A. H. M. Jones et al., s.v. “Memor,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 594.
L. Petersen, PIR V2, fasc. 2, 1983, p. 255, no. 490.
A. Stein, s.v. “Memor no. 5,” RE XV.1, 1931, col. 655.
6. Trebellianus, Celsus, and Saturninus
Kienast, 1996, pp. 229f.
Barbieri, 1952, p. 410, no. 29.
H. Dessau, PIR III, 1898, p. 334, no. 231.
A. H. M. Jones et al., s.v. “Trebellianus,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 922.
A. Stein, s.v. “Trebellianus,” RE VI.A.2, 1937, col. 2262.
Barbieri, 1952, pp. 402f., no. 10.
W. Eck, s.v. “Celsus no. 4,” DNP 2, 1997, col. 1051.
R. Hanslik, s.v. “Celsus no. 5,” KlP 1, 1964, col. 1102.
A. H. M. Jones et al., s.v. “Celsus no. 1,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 193.
A. Stein, s.v. “Celsus no. 8,” RE III.2, 1899, col. 1882f.
A. Stein, PIR II2, 1936, p. 146, no. 646.
Barbieri, 1952, p. 409, no. 25.
H. Dessau, PIR III, 1898, p. 176, no. 162.
A. H. M. Jones et al., s.v. “Saturninus no. 1,” PLRE I, 1971, p. 805.
A. Stein, s.v. “Saturninus no. 5,” RE II.A.1, 1921, col. 213.